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Artificial Intelligence on Cancer – Arya Surya Sabara Cia

Hi Hi Hi,

Di postingan ini gw akan nge-share artikel yang dibuat oleh salah seorang mahasiswa/i gw mengenai Artificial Intelligence. Postingan ini salah satu bentuk apresiasi gw atas pemikiran mereka. Nama pembuat ada di judul postingan.

Berikut postingannya:

What does the future of healthcare look like in a world where artificial intelligence exists? Doctors, scientists and researchers alike are working tirelessly to answer this very question. Since the term ‘AI’ was coined in 1956 by computer scientist John McCarthy, its role has been ever-changing. From its humble beginnings in the early stages of computer technology to the seemingly impossible it’s capable of today, AI has always evolved and is sure to continue doing so as time goes on.

One of the most crucial facets of AI in today society is in healthcare. The possibilities of what AI could do in the field are endless, ranging from diagnosing heart disease more accurately than doctors to knowing when to go forward with surgery, but what will we be focusing on today is, Cancer.

Based from cancer gov, cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer such as Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Lymphoma, Leukemia, and malignancy.

The cure for cancer has been in research for many years, ranging from using traditional herbs, to the well-known therapy, chemotheraphy, but all those methods are still kind of ineffective or having a high toll on patient’s health, as an alternative solution for those methods, computer scientists have started a research about implementing artificial intelligence on resolving the cancer disease.

However, the poor prognoses associated with most cancers creates a sense of urgency for the brains behind healthcare AI research. Fortunately, researchers have found that AI is able to detect cancer and other diseases earlier than possible through standard diagnostic methods, which could be lifesaving for future patients. This has been proven through studies focused on several different types of cancer, including skin cancer and mesothelioma, which have both been detected using AI with more than 95% accuracy.

Earlier this year, a study showed that a computer could detect melanoma with nearly 10% more accuracy than dermatologists. A deep learning computer was able to successfully diagnose the cancer with 95% accuracy based on more than 100,000 images. Comparatively, 58 dermatologists who were shown the same images detected the cancer with an average of 86.6% accuracy. Additionally, a 2015 study done by the Dicle Medical Journal proved this could be done with mesothelioma, a cancer of the heart, abdomen, or, most commonly, lungs. Using Artificial Immune System (AIS) technology, the study shows that malignant pleural mesothelioma could be detected with 97.74% accuracy.

Cancer care is also advancing thanks to AI’s ability to collect and process data. Due to the nature of processing this information, the task is often a time-consuming and tedious job for doctors. Although it has not yet been perfected, this process may be made much easier, quicker and efficient through the use of AI. The burgeoning technology is only advancing and is capable of sorting through large amounts of data that would be “impossible” to do manually, according to Niven R. Narain, president and co-founder of Berg, a biopharma company.

Every individual is unique, which begs the question: why are many cancer patients provided with the same treatment as the next person? A team at Intel is working to solve this issue. Rather than putting patients through chemotherapy, which takes a major toll on cancer patients’ health and immune systems, the Collaborative Cancer Cloud aims to specialize treatment plans. Through treatments tailored for each individual based on specific genomes, the future of cancer care could potentially mean a much less painful experience for patients.

Nanobots on Eliminating Cancer

Types of nanobots are being developed to help curing tumor or cancer cells, one of them is a nanobot that can cut off blood supply to the cancer cells, making it shrinking in size and eventually reduced. Blood-clotting drugs, normally used to tackle minor bleeding rather than as cancer treatment, were carried by nanobots, made from origami-folded DNA sheets, to shut off the blood supply to tumours throughout the body.

Starved of their blood supply, tumours began to shrink and the cancer’s ability to spread and grow in new sites also appeared to be reduced, doubling the life expectancy or removing tumours entirely in some mouse cancers.

Illustration of nanobots built from rectangular DNA origami fragments that consists of thrombin cutting off blood supply by converting fibrinogen into fibrin which bind the blood cells, which blocked the blood path into the tumour cells.

This demonstration, which marks a major step towards the implementation of nanobot drug delivery in medicine, could pave the way for delivering toxic chemotherapy drugs with reduced side effects, among a host of other uses.

“We have developed the first fully autonomous, DNA robotic system for a very precise drug design and targeted cancer therapy,” said Professor Hao Yan, director of the Arizona State University Biodesign Institute’s Centre for Molecular Design and Biomimetics.

“Moreover, this technology is a strategy that can be used for many types of cancer, since all solid tumour-feeding blood vessels are essentially the same,” he added.

These nano-machines are not miniaturised metal craft, as in science fiction, but instead use DNA fragments as a building block, precisely folded to fit its purpose.

In this case fragments of DNA are arrayed in sheets that can be zipped up to encase a drug payload, preventing it interacting with healthy cells and stopping short-lived drugs being broken down.

They also require a release trigger, a molecule which will only respond to a chemical signature on the outside of cancer cells, which unzips the nanobot exposing the treatment.

In this study, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology today, the DNA sheets were folded into a tube shape to encase blood-clotting drug, Thrombin, the drug is used to treat bleeds after surgery but breaks down quickly to target tumours.

The international team, including researchers from China, Australia and the US, primed their nanobots to release in the presence of the protein molecule, nucleolin, which coats the internal walls of blood vessels feeding tumours.

Within 24 hours of the treatment the scientists saw blood vessels feeding the primary tumour site had been cut off, with solid clots forming in all tumour blood vessels over the next 72 hours – causing the tumour to start to die.

The treatment was most effective in treating mice with melanoma cancers, which have a very strong blood supply, where three out of the eight mice treated showed complete regression of their tumours.

However, there are still challenges, which is tracing the nanobots when they are inside the human body, if it has been implemented on human, of course, since they are too small to show up on X-rays and other traditional imaging technology. Tracking is essential not only to ensure the nanobots carry out their intended procedures, but also to ensure that the devices, and any tissue they have disrupted, are safely removed. 

“This is a serious challenge for our field to overcome. There is no clear answer,” says Mr Diller. Making the nanobot biodegradable is a possible solution, he adds.

Richard Kerr, consultant neurosurgeon and council member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, chairing its Commission on the Future of Surgery, believes these technical issues will be resolved because of the glut of expertise and research money pouring into the field. 

But for me, this method is still doubtful, since every cancer has different type of treatment when it’s about terminating cancer cell, for example, if we use this method to a patient with a brain cancer, if we do cut the blood supply to the cancer cells in the brain, then the surrounding brain cells will also affected, which might results in the patient having a stroke ( cerebrovascular accident, CVA )

The solution that I offer to these nanobots is instead of cutting off the blood supply, the idea is about sending nanobots that contains some kind of protein which has the fagosit ability to eat the cancer cells, after the two substances unite becoming one, the nanobot will then approach the united cell and contain it to then be excreted through the patients’ pus or through the disposal system, but however this still needs to be thoroughly researched.

The conclusion is, to completely eliminate cancer, more work needs to be done by both the researchers developing AI technology and the doctors using it in practice. From life-altering breakthroughs such as the ability to diagnose cancers early to simply shortening the time spent processing data and imaging, the world of healthcare is being completely changed by AI.

The future of AI and the role it will play in healthcare down the line is unknown, but researchers are working tirelessly to give patients the best possible outcomes The world may one day have a cure for cancer, and artificial intelligence could be the science that gets us there.

Resources

Nice article Arya. Keep the good work! Check his blog at https://www.linkedin.com/in/arya-surya-a842ab167/

See you di postingan selanjutnya.

Ciao

 

 

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